VIDEO – Dubrovnik e Isola di Lokrum (Croazia) – ESTATE 2011


Ragusa (in croato Dubrovnik, in italiano anche Ragusa di Dalmazia), è una città della Croazia meridionale di 42.641 abitanti, situata lungo la costa della Dalmazia. La città, che ha lungamente mantenuto la sua indipendenza, vanta un centro storico di particolare bellezza che figura nell’elenco dei Patrimoni dell’Umanità dell’UNESCO e che le è valso il soprannome di “perla dell’Adriatico”.
Ragusa è il capoluogo della regione raguseo-narentana, nonché la maggiore città della Dalmazia meridionale. La città di Ragusa è stata fondata originariamente su un’isola rocciosa e poi collegata alla terraferma mediante interramento di un sottile braccio di mare (che corrisponde oggi alla parte pianeggiante della città). Le fortificazioni attuali risalgono al XVII secolo, quando in seguito ad un devastante terremoto la città venne ricostruita quasi interamente. Dal punto di vista urbanistico, il centro storico (che è tassativamente pedonale) è diviso a metà da un lungo stradone lastricato (detto appunto Stradún) che termina in prossimità del porto e lungo il quale si affacciano i palazzi più significativi della città. Di fronte alla città vi è l’isola di Lacroma (Lokrum).

Lacromaì (in croato: Lokrum) è un’isola della Croazia situata nel Mar Adriatico di fronte alla città di Ragusa (Dubrovnik). L’isola è disabitata ed è sede di un parco naturalistico.

(Fonte Wikipedia)

Dubrovnik (pronounced [dǔbroːʋnik], Italian: Ragusa, Greek: Ραγκούσα, Ragoùsa) is a city on the Adriatic Sea coast of Croatia, positioned at the terminal end of the Isthmus of Dubrovnik. It is one of the most prominent tourist destinations on the Adriatic, a seaport and the centre of Dubrovnik-Neretva county. Its total population is 42,641 (census 2011).[1] In 1979, the city of Dubrovnik joined the UNESCO list of World Heritage Sites.

The prosperity of the city of Dubrovnik has always been based on maritime trade. In the Middle Ages, as the Republic of Ragusa, also known as a Maritime Republic (together with Amalfi, Pisa, Genoa, Venice and other Italian cities), it became the only eastern Adriatic city-state to rival Venice. Supported by its wealth and skilled diplomacy, the city achieved a high level of development, particularly during the 15th and 16th centuries.
The beginning of tourism in Dubrovnik is often associated with the construction of the late 19th-century luxury hotels in Croatia, such as Grand Hotel (1890) in Opatija and the Hotel Imperial (1897) in Dubrovnik. According to CNNGo, Dubrovnik is among the 10 best medieval walled cities in the world.[3] Although Dubrovnik was demilitarised in the 1970s to protect it from war, in 1991, after the breakup of Yugoslavia, it was besieged by Serb-Montenegrin forces for seven months and received significant shelling damage.

In Croatian, the city is known as Dubrovnik; in Italian as Ragusa; and in Latin as Ragusium. Its historical name in Greek is Raugia (Ραυγια) or Ragousa (Ραγουσα).
The current Croatian name was officially adopted in 1918 after the fall of the Austro-Hungarian Empire, but it was in use from the Middle Ages. It is also referred to as Dubrovnik in the first official document of the treaty with the Ban of Bosnia Ban Kulin in 1189.

Historical lore indicates that Ragusa (Dubrovnik) was founded in the 7th century on a rocky island named Laus, which provided shelter for refugees from the nearby city of Epidaurum.
Another theory appeared recently, based on new archaeological excavations. New findings (a Byzantine basilica from the 8th century and parts of the city walls) contradict the traditional theory. The size of the old basilica clearly indicates that there was quite a large settlement at the time. There is also increasing support in the scientific community[who?] for the theory that major construction of Ragusa took place before the Common Era. This “Greek theory” has been boosted by recent findings of numerous Greek artefacts during excavations in the Port of Dubrovnik. Also, drilling below the main city road has revealed natural sand, contradicting the theory of Laus (Lausa) island.
Dr Antun Ničetić, in his book Povijest dubrovačke luke (“History of the Port of Dubrovnik”), expounds the theory that Dubrovnik was established by Greek sailors. A key element in this theory is the fact that ships in ancient times travelled about 45–50 nautical miles (83–93 km; 52–58 mi) per day, and required a sandy shore to pull out of water for the rest period during the night. The ideal rest site would have fresh water source in its vicinity. Dubrovnik has both, and is situated almost halfway between the two known Greek settlements of Budva and Korčula, 95 nautical miles (176 km; 109 mi) apart from each other.

Lokrum ( Italian: Lacroma) is an island in the Adriatic Sea 600 metres from the city of Dubrovnik, Croatia. It stretches from northwest to southeast and receives regular ferry service from the city.

(Fonte Wikipedia)